U.S. District Judge Eleanor Ross ruled against Secretary of State Brian Kemp, who had argued that state law already provides a process for new citizens to vote.
The law is the subject of a lawsuit brought by civil rights groups now working its way through federal courts.
In all, there are almost 47,000 pending voter registrations in Georgia because of the state's "exact match" law that flags people until they prove citizenship, names, addresses, birth dates and Social Security numbers.
"All of us may have been created equal, but if you're woke. you've got sense enough to know that everybody is not treated equally", she said. He called attention to lawsuits over allegations of voter suppression in the state, where more than 50,000 residents were in danger of not being able to vote.
Recent polls show Abrams and her Republican opponent, Brian Kemp, Georgia's secretary of state who has been endorsed by President Trump, in a dead heat. He chided Republicans, including Kemp, for opposing the Affordable Care Act and only recently turning to ads that tell voters GOP candidates will protect insurance access for Americans with once-disqualifying health conditions.
"Any voter confusion in our state rests on the shoulders of Stacey Abrams - who is obviously too extreme and dishonest for Georgia", Kemp spokesman Ryan Mahoney said.
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But Georgia Democrats, Abrams chief among them, say the policies are purposefully heavy-handed and make voting more hard for legal citizens, especially minority voters that tend to lean Democrat.
Kemp's involvement in the election procedures while a candidate has also drawn scrutiny.
Real Clear Politics, which tracks several polls to give an average idea of where a race is standing, shows Kemp with just a one-point lead ahead of next week's vote.
The ACLU announced on Friday that another court had sided against Kemp in a different voting rights case.
Kemp's campaign called the incidents "fake" and blamed Abrams. The state attorney general's office did not say whether it planned to appeal the ruling, with spokeswoman Katie Byrd declining to comment.