Rose played the final two holes at Sheshan International in 11 shots compared to Finau's six.
Schauffele's 66, which came in his 25th birthday, also did not feature a dropped shot while Finau's card included one bogey and seven birdies.
"The issue's obviously with Jordan not wanting to play with me", he told the New York Times after the USA were thrashed by Europe in Paris.
He had a pair of birdies on the par 5s, laid up on the reachable par-4 16th and made birdie, and wound up with a 5-under 67.
West Australian Brett Rumford finished on one-over-par 73 after a chequered run of birdies and bogeys, while Jason Norris carded a similarly frustrating 74.
Patrick Reed simply let the wind carry him to the first-round lead of the WGC-HSBC Champions.
"It felt really good, because if you can go out and shoot rounds like that in these kind of conditions, you know you're going to have confidence when the wind dies down and there are ideal conditions out there", Reed said. It took him 15 shots to play the two par 5s on the front nine, taking a triple bogey on No. 2 and a double bogey on the par-5 eighth hole.
Chris Sale closes out World Series victory for Red Sox
The Red Sox did more than just talk it. "With that special group of guys out there, to celebrate with them, that was awesome". Another year, another World Series celebration at Dodgers Stadium by a team that wasn't the Dodgers.
"I'm a little bit behind Francesco. and I'm hoping to close that gap and have a chance to hopefully win the Race to Dubai", said Reed.
Starting at the 10th, Reed was quickly in the red thanks to a 20-foot putt at the 11th and he backed that up with another birdie at the next hole to give him some early momentum.
"I figured I just hit the shot I needed - a big, huge slice", Reed said.
"After hitting the tee shot in the water, you're always happy to be able to walk off with par", he said.
Finau hasn't won since the 2016 Puerto Rico Open, an opposite-field event that was held the same week as the Match Play.
He is joined on the score by Northern Ireland's Rory McIlroy.
That meant Brooks Koepka, who closed with a 69 and tied for 16th, stayed at No. 1 in the world for at least another week.
The victory for Schauffele is his third in the last eighteen months, and it crescendoed.
He had several other good looks at birdie, and as good as his 64 was on Thursday, it was about the worst he could have shot.