They found cluster 3 was most resistant to insulin, and had significantly higher risk of diabetic kidney disease than those in clusters 4 and 5. He announced that the province will now be able to provide at least a part of the cost of insulin pumps and supplies for people with diabetes in the 18-25 years of age. It is the disease of individuals whose blood glucose or blood sugar levels are too high.
Insulin is the hormone that helps glucose to get into the cells to be used as energy. One form was particularly insulin resistant and increased the risk of kidney disease, while another combined insulin deficiency with auto-antibodies. These patients typically had high BMIs meaning they were obese or overweight but they did not show insulin resistance.
Diabetes is now divided into type 1 diabetes (approximately 10%), type 2 diabetes (85-90%) and several less common diseases like latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA), maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) and secondary diabetes. One corresponded to type 1 diabetes and the other 4 were subtypes of type 2 diabetes.
"The most insulin resistant patients (Group 3) have the most to gain from the new diagnostics as they are the ones who are now most incorrectly treated", says Professor Leif Groop.
They found there were clearly five distinct groups of patients that could be seen across every registry they examined.
Cluster 2 are severely insulin-deficient patients who were likewise young and healthy, and struggled with insulin, but the cause was not immune system failure. The remaining four groups could best be thought as subtypes of type 2. This condition occurs because the body's immune system attacks the cells in the pancreas that make insulin. The third group was made of patients whose bodies kept making insulin but had stopped responding to it.
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Cluster 2 was mainly defined as severely insulin-deficient as well as GADA negative. Now diabetes will distinguish: autoimmune diabetes, severe insulinzavisimy, heavy insulinorezistentne, lightweight form that is associated with excess weight, and also age-related diabetes easy form. Lastly, Cluster 5 describes mild diabetes in patients who were older or in mid-age when they developed symptoms.
After analyzing the data of almost 15,000 diabetics using information taken from four registries in Sweden and Finland, the team found that Type 2 is actually made up of four categories, including two of the most severe types of the disease.
"This is the first step towards personalised treatment of diabetes", said Leif Groop, Professor at Lund University in Sweden.
According to researchers, the more specific categorization could lead to a more targeted and personalized treatment for diabetes.
The authors noted that more research is needed on the issue. And there still are unanswered questions about how relevant these differences are.
Thus, the need for new and better treatment options is great. They're now working on a web-based tool that could assign patients to specific clusters.
It is estimated that there are 14.3 crore diabetics across the world, and India with close to five crore diabetics is the Diabetes capital.